A’aninin: The Gros Venture.
Akimel O’Odham: The Pima.
Anicinàpek/Anishinaabeg/Anishinabek/Anishininiwag/Nishnabec: ”Original People”. All variants of the the self-description used by the peoples commonly known as the Algonquin, Nipissing, Oji-Cree, Odawa, Ojibwa and Potawatomi who speak mutually intelligible dialects of of the same language. Also related are the names of the language dialects spoken by these nations, for example Anicinâbemowin (Algonquin) and Anishinaabemowin (Ojibwa).
Ani’yunwi’ya: The Cherokee.
Asakiwaki: The Sauk.
Aspáalooke: The Crow.
Aztekah (Azteca): See: Nawatlakah.
Chahiksichahiks: The Pawnee.
Chahta: The Choctaw.
Chickasha: The Chickasaw.
Dené: Northern Athabaskan-speaking Nations of the northern boreal and artic regions of kanada and alaska. The five main groups of Dené are:
- Dënesųłiné (“People of the Barrens”): The Chipewyan
- Tłı̨chǫ (“Dog-Flank People”): The Dogrib,
- T’atsaot’ine: The Yellowknives.
- Deh Gah Got’ine: The Slavey
- Sahtúot’ine: The Sahtu.
Diné: The Navajo.
Hinonoeino: The Arapaho.
Hiraacá: The Hidatsa.
Ka’igwu: The Kiowa.
Kiash Machitiwuk/Mamaceqtaw: “The Ancient Ones/The People”. Both terms for the nation commonly known as the Menominee.
Kiwigapawa: The Kickapoo.
Kwakwaka’wakw: ”Those who speak Kwak’wala”, The Kwakiutl.
Lenni-Lenape: The Delaware.
Meskwaki: The Fox.
Mexikah (Mexica): In the year Ze-TekpatlIn (1064 CE on the european calender) eight Nawatlakah left the region of Aztlán and migrated south into what is now Mexiko. These nations were the Matlatzinca, Tepaneca, Tlawica, Malinalca, Akolwah, Xochimilca, Chalca and Wexotzinca. Tales of their migration state that they were led by a man, a warrior-priest, named Mexihtli-Witzilopochtli, who had received a vision instructing him to lead his people south and seek out a new homeland. During this journey, those who remained faithful to the original vision took the name Mexikah (Meh-Shee-Kah) which means “Followers of Mexihtli.”
Mikasuki: The Seminole.
Moadok Maklaks: The Klamath.
Muscogee: The Creek.
Nakoda: The Assiniboine.
Nawatlakah (Nahuatlaca): Also, though incorrectly, referred to as Azteca/Aztec, this is not a single nation, but rather a term that refers to the people of the so-called “Uto-Aztec” ethnic group who lived in Aztlán. In the year Ze-TecpatlIn (1064 CE on the european calender) eight Nawatlakah nations left Aztlán and journeyed to Mexiko. These nations became the Mexikah. Not all Nawatlakah nations left Aztlán though; the Hopi, Pohogue (Shoshone), Nunt’zi (Ute), Numa & Nuwuvi (Northern & Southern Paiute), Numunu (Comanche), Akimel & Tohono O’odham (Pima & Papago) and others stayed and to this day reside in Aztlán.
Ndeh: The Apache.
Nēhilawē: “Those Who speak Our Language”. The group of people commonly known as the Cree.
- Ilnu-Aimûn: The Western Montagnais, Betsiamites dialect.
- Innu-Aimûn: The Eastern Montagnais, including the Naskapi.
- Iynu-Ayimûn: The Southern East Cree.
- Iyyu-Ayimûn: Northern East Cree.
- Maskekon/Omaškêkowak/Omushkego: The Swampy Cree.
- Nēhinawēwin/Nehirâmowin: The Atikamekw.
- Nēhiyawēwin: The Plains Cree.
- Nehlueun: The Western Montagnais, Piyekwâkamî dialect.
- Nīhithawīwin: The Woods Cree.
Niitsítapi: The Blackfoot Confederacy:
- Káínaa: The Blood.
- Piikáni: The Piegan.
- Siksikáwa: The Blackfoot “Proper”.
Nimipu: The Nez Perce.
Numa: The Northern Paiute.
Numakaki: The Mandan.
Numunu: The Comanche.
Nunt’zi: The Ute.
Nuwuvi: The Southern Paiute.
Očhéthi Šakówiŋ (Oceti Sakowin): “Seven Council Fires”. The Great Sioux Nation, traditionally divided up by Whites into three linguistically and regionally based groups and several subgroups:
- Titunwan/Teton (Lakotah/Teton/Tetonwan): “Dwellers of the Prairie”. Commonly known as the Lakotah, they are part of a confederation of seven related tribes, and speak Lakȟóta, one of the three major dialects of the Oceti Sakowin language. Also known as the Lakotah is another word from the Lakotah language meaning “feeling affection, friendly, united, allied”. The Titunwan/Teton are further sub-divided into:
- Sičháŋǧu (Sicangu/Brulé): “Burned Thighs”.
- Oglála (Oglala): “Scatters their own”.
- Itázipčho (Sans Arc): “Without Bows”.
- Húŋkpapȟa (Hunkpapa): “Head of the Circle”.
- Mnikȟówožu (Mnicoujou)
- Sihásapa (Sihasapa): “Blackfoot Sioux”
- Oóhenuŋpa (Oohe Nopa): “Two Kettles”
- Ihanktowan: “Village at the End”. Proper name of the people often known as the Yankton. Traditionally resided in the area of the Minnesota river.
- Isányathi/Isánathi: “Knife”. Proper name for the people often known as the Santee or Eastern Dakota. Traditionally resided in the extreme east of the of the modern amerikan territories of the Dakotas, Minnesota and northern Iowa.
Pohogue/Tukaduka: The people commonly known as the Shoshone:
- Agaiduka: The Lemhi Shoshone.
- Newe: The Western Shoshone.
- Kohogue: The Green River Shoshone.
- Nimi: The Northern Shoshone.
Rotinonshón:ni (Rotinoshoni/Rotinonsonni/Rotinonsionni/Haudenosaunee/Hotinnochiendi/Ganonsyoni): “People of the long house”, “the people of the completed longhouse”, “the lodge extended lengthwise”, the Five/Six Nations of the Iroquois, the league of the Iroquois, the Iroquois confederacy. The members of the Confederacy are:
- Kaion’kehá:ka (Kaiokwenhá:ka`/Kaionkwe’haka/Kaokwa haka/Kayonkwe’haka) : “People of the great swamp”. Iroquois-speaking nation commonly known as the Cayuga. The third nation to join the Rotinonshón:ni. West of the Ononta’kehá:ka nation, and east of the Shotinontowane’á:ka nation. A younger brother nation.
- Kanien’kehá:ka (Kenienke haka / Kanyen’kehaka: “People of the flint”. The Iroquois-speaking nation commonly known as the Mohawk. The first nation to join the Rotinonshón:ni. The keepers of the Eastern Door. An older brother nation.
- Oneniote’á:ka (Onenyote’haka): ”People of the standing stone”. Iroquois-speaking nation commonly known as the Oneida or Onneiouts. The second nation to join the Rotinonshón:ni. West of Kanien’kehá:ka nation, east of Ononta’kehá:ka nation. Allied to the United States during the U.S. Revolutionary War. A younger brother nation.
- Ononta’kehá:ka (Oneota haka): “People of the hills”. Iroquois-speaking nation commonly known as the Onondaga. The fifth nation to join the Rotinonshón:ni. Keepers of the central council fire. West of the Oneniote’á:ka nation, east of the Kaion’kehá:ka nation. An older brother nation.
- Shotinontowane’á:ka (Shotinontowane’haka/Sonontowa haka): ”People of the great mountain”. Iroquois-speaking nation commonly known as the Seneca. The fourth nation to join the Rotinonshón:ni. The door keepers, the western mostnation of the Rotinonshón:ni. An older brother nation.
- Tehatiskaró:ros (Taskaroraha:ka/Taskarorahaka): “People of the shirt”. Iroquois-speaking nation commonly known as the Tuscarora. Migrated north after pressure from North Carlonia settlers. The sixth nation to join the Rotinonshón:ni as a distinct, autonomous nation–but did not have roiá:ner in Rotinonshón:ni council. Oneniote’á:ka roiá:ner would speak for them in council, and Taskarorahaka were regarded as the younger brothers to the Oneniote’á:ka.
Sahnish: The Arikara.
Shawanwa: The Shawnee.
Tickanwa’tic: The Tonkawa.
Tohono O’odham: The Papago.
Tsitsistas: The Cheyenne.
Wabanaki (Wabanahkiyik/Waponahkiyik/Waponahkewiyik/Wôbanakiak): “Dawnland”, a confederacy of Algonquin speaking peoples located in, and named for, the area they called Wabanaki. This area can be described roughly as that area now called New England and the Canadian Maritimes. In New England they were primarily located in Maine, Vermont and New Hampshire but also in a part of Massachusetts. In Canada they were located primarily in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick but also in Quebec south of the St. Lawrence River. They were also closely allied with the Innu and Algonquin, and with the Iroquoian-speaking Wyandot. The members of the Confederacy are:
- Alnobak: The Abenaki
- Lnu’k: The Micmac/Mi’gmaq/Mìgmaq
- Penawapskewt: The Penobscot.
- Peskotomuhkati: The Passamaquoddy.
- Wolastoqiyik: The Maliseet.
Wendat (Wyndat/Wyandot/Wyandatt): Iroquois-speaking nation commonly known as the “Huron”. Huron was the French name for the Wendat because of their farming. Literally, “Huron“ means “peasant“; Guyandot, Guyandotte, Ouendat, and Wyandotte. Included: Arendahronon (rock people); Attignawantan (Attignaouentan, Attignousntan) (bear people); Attigneenongnahac (Attiguenongha) (cord people); and Tahontaenrat (Scanonaerat, Scahentoarrhonon) (deer people).